THEORETICAL AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVE ON CERTAIN TYPES OF LEGAL LIABILITY IN CRYPTOCURRENCY RELATIONS

Oleksii Drozd, Yaroslav Lazur, Ruslan Serbin

Abstract


The aim of this article is to study the theoretical, methodological, and legal possibilities of application of certain types of legal responsibility to the relations, which are connected with cryptocurrency (bitcoin). Some types of liability in the field of cryptocurrency relations make the subject of the study. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of legal regulation of the sphere of cryptocurrency in Ukraine and in foreign countries. Advantages and disadvantages of different modes of cryptocurrency turnover are determined: from direct prohibition to granting the status of the official payment system. It is made on the basis of the analysis of peculiarities of the circulation of virtual money in Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, Indonesia, China, the Russian Federation, Bolivia, Ecuador, Thailand, Vietnam, the USA, Japan, Spain, and some other countries. On the basis of the comparative legal study of certain provisions of the civil, administrative, tort, and criminal legislation of Ukraine, the possibilities and limits of the application of certain types of legal responsibility to violations in the field of cryptocurrency are determined. The results of the comparative legal study have shown that, unlike most foreign countries, in Ukraine, there is no legislative consolidation of the legal status of the virtual currency. In this regard, today in the national legislation, there are no direct rules that would predict the occurrence of administrative, criminal or civil liability for the offenses in the field of cryptocurrency relations. Practical impact. Since guarantees of compulsory restoration or protection of violated law play an important role in the legal regulation of any social relations, the proper legislative regulation of public relations in the sphere of crypto currency circulation is an urgent problem today, including with the help of establishing liability for the offenses in this field. Correlation/Authenticity. Comparative and legal research of legal regulation of the sphere of crypto currency gives us a better understanding of the most promising directions of development of administrative, criminal, and civil liability in this field.

Keywords


cryptocurrency, legal liability, transaction, licensing, Bitcoins, crypto exchange, crypto market.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aiganym, E. Seitim. (2016). Analiz kryptovaliuty «bitkoin» na vidpovidnist osnovnym funktsiiam hroshei [Analysis of cryptocurrency «Bitcoin» for concistency with the basic functions of money]. Aktualni problemy ekonomiky [Actual issues of economics], 4 (178), pp. 286-293. (in Ukrainian)

Badzym, O., Drevush, A.. Problemy ta perspektyvy rozvytku elektronnykh valiut [Issues and prospects of electronic currencies development]. Retrieved from http: //www.nbuv.gov.ua/node/2116 (in Ukrainian)

Hava, Yu. V. Kriptovaliuta novoho pokolieniia bitbon [Cryptocurrency of the new generation bitbon]. Investytsiina diialnist [Investment activity]. Retrieved from http: //www.nbuv.gov.ua/node/2116 (in Ukrainian)

Derevianko, B.V. (2017). Ryzyky zdiisnennia operatsii z kryptovaliutoiu (bitkoinamy) hromadian i subiektiv hospodariuvannia Ukrainy [Risks of transactions with cryptocurrency (Bitcoins) by citizens and business entities of Ukraine]. Forum prava [The forum of law], 3, pp. 33-39. (in Ukrainian)

Doronin, I. M. Blokchein, suspilstvo i derzhava: problemy pravotvorchosti. [Blockchain, Society and the State: problems of law-making]. Retrieved from http://aphd.ua/publication-230/ (in Ukrainian)

Neskorodzhena, L. L. (2017). Kryptovaliuta: obiekt tsyvilnykh prav chy zasib platezhu [Cryptocurrency: Object of Civil Rights or Means of Payment]. Suchasna tsyvilistychna nauka v umovakh hibrydnoi viiny [Contemporary civil science in a hybrid war]. Kyiv: Vernadsky Taurida National University, pp. 162‒164. (in Ukrainian)

Poplavskyi, O. O. (2016). Kryptovaliuta yak obiekt ekonomichnoho analizu v strakhovykh kompaniiakh [Cryptocurrency as an object of economic analysis in insurance companies]. Journal of ZHDTU, 4 (78), p. 180. (in Ukrainian)

Pantielieieva, N. (2015). Novi formy hroshei v umovakh formuvannia informatsiinoho suspilstva. [New forms of money in the formation of an information society]. Visnyk Natsionalnoho banku Ukrainy [Bulletin of the National Bank of Ukraine], pp. 25-31. (in Ukrainian)

Misnik, N. (2017). Zakonny li bitkoiny v Ukraine [Are the Bitcoins legal in Ukraine?] Retrieved from https://www.epravda.com.ua/rus/publications/2017/08/11/627993/ (in Russian)

Kuznetsova, N. S. (2013). Instytut tsyvilno-pravovoi vidpovidalnosti u tsyvilistychnii doktryni Ukrainy [Institute of Civil Liability in the Civil Doctrine of Ukraine]. Doktryna pryvatnoho prava [The Doctrine of Private Law]. In N. S. Kuznetsova, O. Ye. Kharitonov, R. A. Maidanik et al. (Eds). Pravova doktryna Ukrainy: u 5 t. [The legal doctrine of Ukraine: in 5 vols], 3 (pp. 330-349). Kh.: Pravo [Law]. (in Ukrainian)

Bodnar, T.V. (2014). Vidpovidalnist za porushennia dohovirnykh zoboviazan [Responsibility for violation of contractual obligations]. In I. Bezklubyi, N. Kuznetsova, R. Maidan et al. (Eds.). Vidpovidalnist u pryvatnomu pravi: monohrafiia [Responsibility in private law: monograph] (pp. 101-117). K.: Diploma. (in Ukrainian)

Bodnar, T.V. (2007). Dohovirni zoboviazannia v tsyvilnomu pravi (zahalni polozhennia): navch. posib. [Contractual obligations in civil law (general terms): tuition manual]. K.: Yustinian [ Justinian], 280 p. (in Ukrainian)

Odnostoronnia vidmova u dohovirnykh zoboviazanniakh [Unilateral refusal in contractual obligations]. In R. A. Maidanyk and O. V. Kokhanovskaya (Eds.). Aktualni problemy pryvatnoho prava: zb. statei do yuvileiu dok. yur. n., prof. N. S. Kuznietsovoi [Actual problems of private law: Articles devoted to the jubilee of Doctor of Science, Prof. N. S. Kuznetsova]. K .: Legal Practice, 2014, pp. 33-50. (in Ukrainian)

Borisova, V.I. (head of authors), Baranova, L. M., Zhilinkova, I. V. et al. (2004). Tsyvilne pravo Ukrainy: pidruchnyk: u 2 t. [Civil law of Ukraine: textbook in 2 vols.]. V. I. Borisova, I. V. Spasibo-Fatieieva, V. L. Yarotskyi (Eds.). K.: Yurinkom Inter, 1, 480 p. (in Ukrainian)

Shevchenko, Ya. M. (2012). Vybrani pratsi [Selected Works] (1964-2012). K.: LLC Printing House «Ruta», 404 p. (in Ukrainian)

Maidanyk, R. A. (2013). Tsyvilno-pravova vidpovidalnist [Civil liability]. In Yu. V. Baulin (Ed.). Yurydychna vidpovidalnist: problemy vykliuchennia ta zvilnennia [Legal liability: issues of exclusion and dismissal]. Donetsk: Kalmius, pp. 86-147. (in Ukrainian)

Biriukov, I. A., Zaika, Yu. A. (Eds.). (2014). Tsyvilne pravo Ukrainy: zahalna chastyna [Civil Law of Ukraine: General Part]. K.: Alerta, 510 p. (in Ukrainian)

Zaika, Yu. O., Timush, I. S., Loviak, O. O. (2014). Ukrainske tsyvilne pravo: navch. posib. 3-tie vyd. pererob. ta dop. [Ukrainian Civil Law: Tuition Manual] (3rd ed.). Yu. O. Zaika (Ed.). K.: Center for Educational Literature, 358 p. (in Ukrainian)

Loviak, O. O. (2014). Normatyvno-pravove zabezpechennia vidshkoduvannia shkody, zavdanoi orhanamy vnutrishnikh sprav Ukrainy: monohrafia [Regulatory and Legal Provision for Compensation for Damage Inflicted by the Internal Affairs Bodies of Ukraine: Monograph]. V. S. Gopanchuk (Ed.). K., 228 p. (in Ukrainian)

Pushkin, A. A, Samoilenko, V. M, Shishka, R. B. et al. (1996). Grazhdanskoie pravo Ukrainy: ucheb. dlia vuzov sistemy MVD Ukrainy [Civil Law of Ukraine: textbook for institutions of higher education of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine] (Vols. 1-2). A. Pushkin, V. M. Samoilenko (Eds.), 1. Kh.: University of the Internal Affairs; Osnova [Basis], 440 p. (in Russian)

Gribanov, V. P. (1973). Otvietstviennost za narushenie grazhdanskikh prav i obiazannostei [Responsibility for Violation of Civil Rights and Obligations]. M.: Yur. lit. [Law Literature], pp. 16-25. (in Russian)

Uhoda pro vykorystannia servisu PingBlockchain.com. [Agreement on the use of the service PingBlockchain.com.] Retrieved from https://pingblockchain.com/elektronna-valjuta-Bitcoin/ (in Ukrainian)

Tsyvilnyi kodeks Ukrainy [the Civil Code of Ukraine]. (2003). Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy [The Official Bulletin of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine], 40‒44, p. 356. (in Ukrainian)

Loviak, O. O. (2014). Pravovyi pohliad na elektronnyi tsyfrovyi pidpys [Electronic digital signature from a legal perspective]. Suspilstvo ta pravo: naukovyi shliakh [Society and Law: Scientific Path], 1, pp. 5-6. (in Ukrainian)

Rudenko, V., Sadovnichy, V. Status kryptovalyut oholosheno u rozshuk [The status of cryptocurrency is declared to be wanted]. Retrieved from https://finclub.net/ua/analytics/status-kryptovaliut-oholosheno-u-rozshuk.html (in Ukrainian)

Kodeks Ukrainy pro administratyvni pravoporushennia [The Code of Ukraine on Administrative Offenses]. (1984). Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrayinskoi RSR [The Official Bulletin of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukrainian SSR], Annex to No. 51. Art. 1122. (in Ukrainian)

Kodeks Ukrainy pro administratyvni pravoporushennia. Naukovo-praktychnyi komentar [The Code of Ukraine on Administrative Offenses. Scientific and Practical Commentary]. Retrieved from http://mego.info/матеріал/науково-практичний-коментар-кодексу-україни-про-адміністративні-правопорушення-пєтков-св-20 (in Ukrainian)

Pro zastosuvannia reiestratoriv rozrakhunkovykh operatsii u sferi torhivli, hromadskoho kharchuvannia ta posluh: Zakon Ukrainy vid 6 lyp. 1995 r. [On the application of transactions registrars in trade, catering and services: Law of Ukraine dated July 6, 1995]. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy [The Official Bulletin of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine], 28, p. 205. (in Ukrainian)

Kryminalnyi kodeks Ukrainy: Naukovo-praktychnyi komentar [The Criminal Code of Ukraine: Scientific and Practical Commentary]. Retrieved from http://yurist-online.com/ukr/uslugi/yuristam/kodeks/024/ (in Ukrainian)

Shapochka, S. V. (2014). Do pytannia zapobihannia okremym vydam shakhraistva, yake vchyniaietsia z vykorystanniam mozhlyvostei merezhi Internet. [On the issue of preventing certain types of fraud committed using the Internet]. Borotba z orhanizovanoiu zlochynnistiu i koruptsiieiu (teoriia i praktyka) [Fighting Organized Crime and Corruption (Theory and Practice)], 1 (32), p. 145. (in Ukrainian)

Plyta, A. I. Kryptovaliuta: yii pravovyi rezhym, problemy zastosuvannia [Cryptocurrency: its legal organization, problems of application]. Retrieved from http://ukrainepravo.com/legal_publications/essay-on-it-law/it_law_plyta_%d1%81ryptocurrency/ (in Ukrainian)




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30525/2256-0742/2017-3-5-221-228

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.