PREREQUISITES FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF MODERN FORMS OF SELF-EMPLOYMENT OF THE POPULATION AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE COUNTRY’S ECONOMY

Valeria Riadinska, Oleksandr Kozachenko, Oleh Ihnatiuk

Abstract


The article is devoted to the relevant issue of introduction of new forms of self-employment and labour in the national economy. The basic indicators of employment of the population are analysed. They testify that recently the number of employed people has decreased, and the number of people who have organized their activities has increased. Researches showed that during 2017, industry differences in nominal and real wages also deepened. The highest average monthly nominal wage in Ukraine remained in financial-insurance and information and telecommunication activities, and the smallest – in land transport, construction, industry, education, and healthcare. It is substantiated that such disagreements create serious socio-economic problems at the local and regional level. These problems have become the prerequisite for the study of new forms of employment and labour, such as outsourcing, outstaffing, freelance, e-lance, coworking. The described models of the business organization use the work of specialists for a certain period of time or volume of work. In this context, the significance of outsourcing as an instrument of enterprises’ access to the necessary resources, an increase of their competitiveness, and reduction of transaction costs is researched, as well as opportunities for development and strengthening of staffing through outstaffing. The advantages of these new forms are: reduced tax base; maintaining the status of a small business; avoiding labour risks and additional grounds for inspections; simplification of accounting. A special attention in the article is devoted to models of self-employment or labour activity of professionals for job search and earnings. Such professions as freelancer and e-lancer, as shown by the research, provide the opportunity to work remotely and carry out all activities through the Internet. Professional areas of e-lancers are as follows: design and graphics, website development and support, writing of advertising and informational texts, programming, advertising, marketing, photography, audio and video, consulting, engineering, and other business services. One of the first explored common platforms (freelance platforms) was hackerspaces, that is, places where gathered people with common interests, and there were such platforms at the expense of membership fees. A comparison of a hackerspace with coworking has shown both common and distinctive features. The main difference is that when building coworking platforms, most often there is cooperation with private business as the organizer of this platform. There is also a certain public sector involvement, but unlike more developed European countries, this sector in Ukraine is too small. Coworking, first of all, provides assistance in the form of premises and technical support, in order to increase its efficiency and economic activity. The article proposes a methodology for calculating self-employed population in Ukraine that will allow representatives of free trades to be attracted to official business activities.

Keywords


outsourcing, outstaffing, freelance, e-lance, coworking, labour market, self-employment, information development

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30525/2256-0742/2018-4-2-209-213

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