Viktor Yakimtsov


Purpose. This article reveals the main definitions of synergetics and methods that are being used in synergetic research. The differences-characteristics of classical, nonclassical, and postnonclassical science and their schematic illustration are described. There are criteria, by which the main methodological principles of synergetics are being chosen. The reasons that have caused an appearance of synergetics and its methodological apparatus and the framework of this apparatus are considered. The special aspects of nonlinearity of complicated systems, in our opinion, include the economic ones. Methodology. Such foreign and domestic scientists as Wiener N. (2003), Thom R. (1975, 1996), Prigogine I., Stengers I. (1986), Zang V.B. (1999), and Arnold V. (2004) have used methodological apparatus of synergetics in modern science. Methodologically synergetics is open for those new conceptions that are being formed in certain disciplines. Methodological principles of synergetics that cause the “colostral” principles are nonlinearity, nonclosure, and instability. The main principle – the rule of nonlinearity is a contravention of the principle of the super offer in the certain phenomenon (process): the result of adding the impacts on the system is not the adding these impacts’ results. The causes’ results cannot be added. This means that the result of adding the causes does not equal to the union of causes’ results. Results. For the synergy concept, the idea is typical that we see everything at once: the whole and its parts. It combines holism and elementarizm that are continuing each other. Synergetics, in fact, integrates deterministic and probabilistic styles of scientific thinking. Synergetics is the general theory of self-organization. It formulates the general principles of self-organization, valid for all levels of matter. A specific feature of the synergetic approach is to move from the study of simple to complex, from closed to open, from linear to nonlinear, from consideration of equilibrium and near-equilibrium processes to delocalization and instability, to the study of what happens far from equilibrium. Practical implications. The synergetic approach has a great advantage over others. Unlike cybernetics and systems engineering, research which focused on maintaining and preserving the existing state of dynamic equilibrium or order system, synergy, as logical extensions, studying systems in their dynamics and development. Accordingly, if the cybernetics principle operates mainly negative feedback aimed at the preservation of order in the system, synergistic implemented the principle of positive feedback, whereby the changes that occur in the system, not extinguished, and accumulate and amplified. Value/originality. As a result of the interaction of elements of the environment come to coordinated, cooperative behaviour, resulting in spontaneous, a new order, structure or dynamic mode.


synergetics, postnonclassical science, methodology, paradigm, system

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